Part 4. The secret conquest of Africa
Who serves in the CAR and Sudan on Russia’s behalf; what conflicts between Russians and local gangs look like; who recruits mercenaries and supplies them with equipment; how gold mining companies in Africa are related to companies from Saint Petersburg and Yevgeny Prigozhin. Joint investigation of Current Time and «Municipal scanner».
On Monday, May 7, 2018, an unusual convoy crossed the northwestern border of the CAR from the nearby Sudan. 18 vehicles entered the territory controlled by rebels: heavy high-sided MAN trucks, a crane truck and three armored «Urals».
Local media claimed that the convoy from the Sudanese city of Am-Dafuk had a short argument at a roadblock with the local peacekeepers (Zambian soldiers) and then moved west from Birao accompanied by the rebels. The soldiers in the trucks spoke Russian.
Hier, 18 véhicules & militaires #russes entrée en #Centrafrique via Amdafock #Soudan direct° site d'exploration pétrolière de Golongosso escorté par FPRC @RJDH_RCA @ODouacle @UN_CAR @RCA_Renaissance @lesamisdesiloe @sputnik_fr @LeMonde_Afrique @Toujours_en_RCA #France #CARcrisis pic.twitter.com/gtHLD7my60— Fleury Agou (@agoufleury) May 8, 2018
Three days later, the rebels stopped the convoy near the city of Ndele. France 24 made a report that featured an amateur video from the CAR. The channel claimed that the Russians in the convoy were transporting supplies for the hospital located at the rebel-controlled territory. Local field commander searched the «Urals» and later accused the Russians of an attempt to smuggle weaponry.
«There were 55 Russian mercenaries in the convoy. They arrived with a present for the FPRC (one of the rebel groups) — a field hospital. The Russians were officially invited by president Touadera to train and equip the army. However, it’s obvious that they ae also trying to form contacts with the rebels», — claims the movie.
Over ten European-looking people and one Asian-looking man can be seen in the video. Two members of the convoy negotiate with the field commander. The Asian-looking man talks to him in French and translates to the second man. When the leader of the rebels explains that he will take all military equipment from their cargo, he talks to the Asian-looking man.
CT managed to identify this man with the use of the SearchFace service. His name is Zhandatbek Tyrtogov. Until 2010, he’s served in the National Guard of Kyrgyzstan. This agency provided protection for the country’s president Kurmanbek Bakiev, in particular during the mass riots and revolution in the republic. A person who was close to Bakiev at that time confirmed that the man in the video from the CAR is indeed Tyrtogov. After the revolution in Kyrgyzstan, he went on to serve in the French Foreign legion, said his former comrade-in-arms, who also recognized Tyrtogov in France 24’s report.
«He’s a kind man, despite his appearance. I would never say that he’s able to do something evil, but I have no idea how he behaves there, what orders he receives and what kind of influence all this has on him. In such circumstances, people can do horrible things», — Tyrtogov’s former comrade-in-arms told CT.
Tyrtogov left the Foreign Legion over a year ago without giving any reasons, he continues. He supposes that Tyrtogov needed money.
Tyrtogov took a photo with another comrade-in-arms on Corsica. The picture was published on his Instagram page. On it, the Foreign Legion fighter os holding a sausage that looks like chuchuk (or sujuk) — one of the most famous dishes of the Kyrgyz cuisine.
Sources of the Kyrgyz branch of Radio Liberty found out that Tyrtogov had a sergeant rank at the National Guard and travelled abroad as a UN peacekeeper from Kyrgyzstan.
CT correspondent travelled to Malovodnoe village near Bishkek, where Tyrtogov’s wife and sister live. They said that in autumn, Zhanat (shortened version of the name Zhandatbek) came to his home country to get married. The wedding took place on September 21. Tyrtogov told his relatives he was working «for Russia» since last year. He said that the base he serves at is in Krasnodar and his deployments from there last four months each. The last time he contacted the family was shortly before Valentine’s Day.
The family’s neighbors confirmed that Zhanat had left the French Foreign Legion, but said they hadn’t heard anything about Africa. They also know that Tyrtogov works in Russia, but «he has a contract there, everything’s classified».
Tyrtogov’s family is constructing a new two-story building next to their old but nice house. Tyrtogov himself didn’t respond to the message reuests on social networks.
Updated on March 7, 12:00 Moscow time
After this text was published, a man who introduced himself as Tyrgotov’s close friend contacted CT correspondent. He claims that some information in the investigation incorrect: Tyrtogov left the National Guard of Kyrgyzstan much earlier than 2010 and has not worked there under president Kurmanbek Bakiev.
CT managed to obtain the full version of the amateur video showed in France 24’s report. Judging by the offscreen voice, it was filmed by one of the Russians. The camera recorded the rebels ordering to open the containers one by one. The Russians are unloading heavy wooden crates. Inside are personal belongings, documents, books about Likhachev and Chaadaev, chess, a hookah and even an electric kettle. It seems like all this was packed in a hurry: this is how an unplanned or poorly organized move looks like.
Four rebels arduously carry a large black crate past the camera but don’t show its contents. «This is a small plane», — a man from the convoy tries to explain. «Let’s check», — another man translates to him from French.
One of the soldiers named Kostya complains: «They ****ing want to assemble the delta and launch it». In response, someone says: «No, that’s impossible». «Ask them what they want, where they’re taking it, — says the man behind the camera. — Kostya, are they going to extort our drone or what?»
The search continues. The next container that attracts the rebels’ interest is the green crate full of Chinese Baofeng two-way radios. The rebel leader takes one of them and orders to take the whole crate to the spot where the drone container is already lying.
A video taken from another phone shows that the rebels search another «Ural», but it barely has anything inside — it’s obvious that this truck was used to transport people,
During the negotiations, the rebel commander announces that the Russians have broken the agreement by trying to transport military equipment. CT was unable to find out how this argument ended, but another video shows that the convoy moved on — towards the capital of the country.
The convoy, which Tyrtogov supposedly one of the leaders of, was not supposed to become classified. A ten-minute film was made about it. The video with French voiceover was obviously not intended for Russian viewers. For seven minutes, operators show how a truck column making its way through the jungle from Sudanese border towards the CAR capital Bangui.
The journey was difficult: viewers can see how the trucks get stuck in mud, some even overturn. «Urals» of the same model as the ones mentioned in the previous chapter pull out the MAN trucks.
Most of the convoy members shown in the film are black. Specialists making it were very skilled at showing only what’s allowed to be shown and hiding the details that may raise questions from the viewers.
Russians only take the spotlight in the scene of unloading the humanitarian aid. They do it from the trucks in Bangui and from the helicopter in smaller towns. CT already mentioned the MI-8 helicopter shown in the film — it was paid for by «M-Finance». Tyrgotov and other mercenaries still remain behind the scenes.
But one time, operators and editors slipped up. In the scene filmed in one of the cities where humanitarian aid was distributed, Kirill Romanovskiy, an operator who works for the RIA «FAN» agency related to Prigozhin, accidentally got himself in the shot (RIA «FAN» isn’t included in the scheme because CT didn’t study the «media» chains. «Federal News Agency» was included into the sanctions list of the US Ministry of Finance in December 2018. Its connection to Prigozhin was discovered by RBK).
There’s also a second shot where Romanovskiy appears: a photo of him was taken by a correspondent of a Central African website. The operator didn’t tell anyone about his participation in the convoy until this photo was discovered in January by the «Dossier» center.
«This was a private commercial order for photo and video recording of a humanitarian convoy that delivered field hospitals, medical supplies and other items to aid the citizens of the CAR. I didn’t tell anyone about it because this was a strictly private order», — said Romanovskiy in his BBC interview.
Romanovskiy strongly refused to speak to CT correspondents and blocked them when they attempted to call him on messengers. When asked through common acquaintances to answer some questions, he explained that he doesn’t want to talk to a Radio Liberty project.
The name of RIA «FAN» employee Romanovskiy is mentioned in every single investigation of the deaths of the three Russians in the CAR. He was the one who gave the group contacts of «fixer Martin», who was supposed to aid the journalists. Shortly before the murder, «Martin» stopped making any contacts, and since then no one can prove that this man ever existed. Romanovskiy continues to claim that he knows Martin personally, but doesn’t remember his last name.
For the last few minutes of the film, viewers are shown an interview with CAR president Faustin-Archange Touadera, who stands in front of an «Ural» and thanks Russia for its assistance. CT cannot confirm that tis film was shown to the public, particularly in the CAR. Editorial staff received the video from the «Dossier» center
The second operator who worked on the convoy film was freelancer Denis Tarasov. «We filmed the convoy for a relatively short period of time and didn’t reach Ndele [where the search occurred], so I don’t know any details of this incident», — said Tarasov. He refused to answer any other questions citing «certain agreements».
The video of the convoy search features another notable character. A man with a heavy beard wearing a boonie hat and sunglasses puts on a belt with guns and ammunition. He loudly complains that some of his personal accoutrements got lost.
«I can’t find two of my magaziness. All of them were like these, — he points at his belt and asks the soldier in the back of the «Ural». — Look, Zakhar, two of my magazines are missing. Two brown magazines. Gould you them to me?».
Another scene shows him unloading crates with equipment from the truck alongside other soldiers. He doesn’t participate in the negotiations with the field commander.
However, he introduces himself as the head of Berengo training camp where instructors sent by Russia train soldiers of the government forces (FACA). Fontanka article quotes a converstion with him
— Hello. I’m something like a commandant here, I was asked to show you around and tell you everything. Within sensible bounds, of course. You can call me Scar.
— Scar? But what’s your name? Can I call you Ivan? Здравствуйте. Я тут что-то вроде коменданта, мне поручено показать вам тут все, рассказать. В рамках разумного, конечно. Ко мне можно обращаться Шрам.
— Sergey is better.
Fontanka journalist Yulia Nikitina was invited to the CAR by RIA «FAN» immediately after the murder of the three Russians. She was accompanied by the aforementioned «FAN» operator Kirill Romanovskiy and photographer Dmitry Tarasov — she only found out that they both filmed the convoy from Sudan to Bangui later. In her conversation with CT, Nikitina stressed that she refused to take the money offered by RIA «FAN».
Scar changed his sand-colored boonie hat to a similar camouflage one, but his sunglasses and beard stayed the same.
The videos recorded by Fontanka show training for recruits: soldiers crawl in the dust without weapons and imitate shooting machine guns with their arms — just like kids whose parents didn’t buy them toys. At the same time, instructors give orders in Russian.
As Fontanka journalist explained, this wasn’t a combat training, but rather a Russian lesson.
«We were supposed to arrive in the morning, but we were late, and the combat training was over by the time we arrived. We only saw the Russian lesson. As Scar told us, a professional teacher teaches FACA soldiers Russian on weekdays. And at weekends, like the day we were in Berengo, instructors do a revision with them. This looks funny from the sidelines, but if you think about it, you get the following picture: they teach the soldiers that in the real combat, they will need to understand commands in Russian, since they will be led by Russians. That’s why they teach them how to say “Contact on the left”, “Contact on the right”, “My left arm is wounded”, “My right arm is wounded”, and so on, in Russian. But most of the training is done with guns, they use the French who trained with wooden weapon models as an example. They have a separate range there where they train things like storming a building», — Nikitina recalls.
CT was unable to identify Scar. The only member of the convoy, apart from Tyrtogov, who was successfully identified by the editorial staff is Georgy Sabadyr. The SearchFace service found a picture of this Russian who worked in the CAR wearing uniform and holding a gun next to a destroyed tank. It was taken near Chryashchevatoe village close to Luhansk in March 2016.
WHO GETS INVITED BY THE CAR
Russian government officially confirmed that Russians were sent to the CAR in March 2018. An explanation on «the nature and essence of the two-sisded relations» between Russia and the CAR was published on the MOFA website.
«With consent from UN Security Council Committee 2127 a shipment of small arms and ammunition from the supply of the Ministry of Defense of RussiaС was delivered to Central African army in late January — early February of this year. Also with consent from this committee, 5 military instructors and 170 Russian civic instructors were also dispatched there to train the CAR soldiers. This assistance is being provided in strict accordance with the requirements of the UN Security Council sanctions regime for this country», — stated the MOFA press release (all text highlighted by CT).
Ministry of Foreign Affairs didn’t respond to Current Time’s request to provide information on who the employer of the civic instructors is, who pays for their work and accommodation and if these specialists are related to «M-Finance» or «M Invest».
As mentioned in the previous part of the investigation, CT asked the Security Service of Ukraine to confirm its statement that employees of «M-Finance» are working in the CAR. SBU provided a package of documents that included manning tables of military units and information about payroll and bonus accounting.
Here are some of the occupations from the payroll record: instructor for personal guards, sapper, head of instructors of criminal intelligence, polygraph tester, instructor of field surveillance and covert intelligence work.
One of the oldest documents in this package is the list of 11 names titled «”300” — undergoing indoor treatment». SBU dated it by December 2016. The last person in this list is Smolensk citizen Yuri Shkurapekin, veteran of the Second Chechen War. On his ok.ru account, Shkurapekin poted several photos from Donbass and a photo of himself with two medals: a state decoration «For valor» an unofficial medal of the Wagner Group, which has the soldier’s personal number on it. Conflict Intelligence Team wrote about such medals in its 2017 investigation.
In a conversation with CT, Yuri Shkurapekin confirmed that he was wounded and has undergone a treatment «over two and a half years ago» and that he owns the M-0239 tag, as stated in the list. The only thing he didn’t agree with was his listed occupation «sanitary instructor».
«I’m a field radio operator. Haven’t been in touch with anyone since I was released from the hospital. This was two and a half years ago», — he wrote.
There’s a notable blue writing on the list of wounded soldiers — a fancy stamp with no imprint. The writing covers Yuri Shkurapekin’s tag number.
The same stamp can be found on the document from April 30, 2018 — this one is called «manning table». The header includes the name of the company — «M-Finance». This document lists the positions of military specialists and the payment amounts. The soldiers get a fixed salary of 40 thousand rubles, plus two types of bonuses: 60 to 110 thousand during the work in Russia and 160 to 220 thousand while dispatched. The exact amount of the bonus depends on the position.
SBU also provided screenshots of more detailed records — for February and August 2018. These images don’t have any stamps, but position names and payment amounts match those listed in the record with the «M-Finance» stamp. They also include last names and identity tag numbers, and one of the printouts is called «security service». The first person in each of the tables is Valery Zakharov. He doesn’t hide the fact he’s working with the CAR government. The printouts call him the «head of the group of instructors».
«M-Finance» and Valery Zakharov also feature in the investigation by Mikhail Khodorkovsky’s «Dossier» center. According to «Dossier», at the day of their death, Russian journalists in the CAR were accompanied by a man named Alexander Sotov. He’s made multiple calls to gendarme Emmanuel Cotofio, who was at the murder scene, and to Zakharov. Sotov is listed in the same payroll record as Zakharov
In the group of employees of «M-Finance»’s security service that was dispatched in August 2018, there was the head of instructors for criminal intelligence by the name of Georgy Bubnov.
The man with the same name was already mentioned by Novaya Gazeta five years ago. In 2013, an employee of «Concord»’s security service (Yevgeny Prigozhin’s holding company) Georgy Bubnov was overseeing the infiltration of the spy Maria Kuprashevich into the editorial staff o Novaya Gazeta.
Georgy Bubnov is a man notable for his skill of not getting into the shot. There are about five hundred photos on the socal network accounts of his relatives, but Bubnov himself isn’t on any of them. Novaya Gazeta article stated that Bubnov is skilled at both criminal and covert intelligence work.
Bubnov’s traces were discovered not only in Africa, but also in Leningrad oblast. CT correspondent went to the «Aqua» cooperative, which, according to its former owners, became subject to a hostile takeover. CT interlocutors say that the enterprize was seized from them back in 2015, and now the new owners are building an elite villa community in place of the fish ponds.
Lawyer Alexander Belozerov defends the old owners of «Aqua». He turned out to be a friend of Georgy Bubnov, who has been listed as the director of the cooperative since 2017 — after the takeover.
According to the lawyer, Georgy Bubnov is a former FSB officer who has been medically boarded. The lawyer refused to provide his contact information, because Bubnov was «currently dispatched». Belozerov didn’t specify where exactly Bubnov went claiming he can’t say thet on the phone. He declined to meet personally as well.
In the «M-Finance» payroll record, the man with the name Georgy Bubnov has a identity tag number M-5655. His position is listed as «Head and analyst of criminal intelligence instructors». The document states that he was also dispatched in February and August 2018.
But intelligence and mysterious dispatches aren’t the only things Bubnov does. A chain of companies connects him and Prigozhin’s family.
From Bubnov to Prigozhin through business
From May 2012 till June 2014, Bubnov was the founder and director of «Investments. Construction. Innovations». He didn’t own this company for too long though.
According to the trade register, in 2014 Bubnov sold the company to one Yevgenia Malkina, who, as CT found out, is a business partner of Yevgeny Prigozhin’s mother. As already mentioned in the previous part of the investigations, until February 2017 Violetta Prigozhina was the owner of OOO «Concord management and consulting», which she later transferred to her son. This company, along with Bubnov’s «Investments. Construction. Innovations», incorporated OOO «Service». Elena Malkina, who purchased Bubnov’s company, became the director of «Service».
From 2013 till 2016 (i.e., during Bubnov’s ownership), «Investments. Construction. Innovations» controlled 50% of «Lachta Park Premium». The remaining 50% were owned by Prigozhin’s wife Lyubov.
Bubnov is connected to one Dmitry Utkin through the company of Violetta Prigozhina. However, this Utkin isn’t the legendary leader of Wagner Group, but his full namesake.
BONFIRE FROM «CESSNA»
In April 2018, Central African news outlet Corbeau News Centrafrique reported an incident in the city of Kaga-Bandoro. The four-seat Cessna 182Т (RA-67717) was surrounded by the locals after its landing. They mistook it for a French plan that brought supplies for one of the rebel groups.
Four Russians were surrounded by the mob for a long time. Local governor and CAR transport minister tried to explain to the locals and refugees that the people in the plane were helping the official government, but the mob didn’t believe them. The Russians were rescued by the MINUSCA peacekeepers —one of them is wearing the blue helmet on the photo. To disperse the crowd, the soldiers used 15 tear gas grenades.
Last August, the pilot of this plane Alexander Kalinbet talked about this to Fontanka journalist Yulia Nikitina (CT has the recordings of their converstions). According to him, the furious people wanted to start a bonfire under the plane. Large branches can indeed be seen under the chassis on the photo published by the CAR news outlet, but the article claims that the protesters merely attempted to stop the plane from taking off.
When asked who his employer is, Kalinbet answered: «I think it’s Lobaye Invest».
Kalinbet refused to talk to CT. In his conversation with Fontanka, Kalinbet supposed that the plane also belongs to Lobaye Invest, but he was wrong.
This Cessna RA-67717 has a complicated relationship history with the structures of Prigozhin’s empire. First, from December 2017 till April 2018, it was registered to Pavel Arnold’s «Business project» — CT explained the connection between Arnold and Prigozhin in the first chapter. Then, the plane became the property of «M-Finance». Finally, in June 2018 this plane underwent scheduled maintenance at «Sky AV Tech», and its operator at that time was Lobaye Invest.
According to the accounting documents, «M-Finance» paid «Sky AV Tech» for the scheduled maintenance of the Cessna in two postings: an advance payment of 225 thousand on June 11 and a final settlement of 375 thousand on November 15, 2018.
Airfield near St Pete
«Sky AV Tech» is an aircraft maintenance company, its hangar is located at the Gostilitsy airfield. 75% of the company belongs to Vladimir Artikulniy, his other company dealt with «M Invest»
All documents about the history of Cessna RA-67717 were provided to CT by the «Dossier» center. federal Air Transport Agency did not answer CT’s questions.
Radio Liberty managed to find several more photos of this plane and discover that a second Cessna with an aircraft number RA-67581 was recently transferred from Leningrad oblast to the CAR.
According to the documents of the «Dossier» center, the founder of Lobaye Invest is the 29-year-old Dmitry Sytyi. He stood next to the CAR president Faustin-Archange Touadera at the Saint Petersburg International Economic Forum.
BBC also wrote about Sytyi as the founder of Lobaye Invest. Its sources in the CAR claim that Touadera’s Russian advisor takes Sytyi with him to all negotiations with the rebels and the opposition.
In the video about distributing humanitarian aid to the victims of clashes in RK5 — one of the districts of the CAR capital Bangui — Dmitry Sytyi (the young man on the left) works as a translator for Yevgeny Kopot, the assistant of Valeri Zakharov.
GOLD IN THE JUNGLE
On August 27, 2018, Ministry of Fnance of the Central African Republic published two decreed. The first one granted Lobaye Invest the permission for gold prospecting at an area of 385 square kilometers. The permission was issued for three years with an extension option. In return, The company is obliged to invest at least $1 mil into the project every year.
According to the other decree, the company also received a second, 3712-square-meter, plot for the same purposes. Both plots are located west of the CAR capital Bangui. One of the decrees says the the managing director of Lobaye Invest is Yevgeny Khodotov
The name of this man also appears among the managers of companies related to Prigozhin. From October 2017 to June 2018, Yevgeny Khodotov was the owner and director of «M-Finance» — the company whose internal documents were provided by the SBU and the «Dossier» center. This means that the director of the African company Lobaye Invest, who flies together with the «Russian military specialists» and the former head of the company who hires people for such positions as «sapper» or «instructor of field surveillance and covert intelligence» are the same person.
DREAMS COME TRUE
At the meeting between prime minister Dmitry Medvedev and Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir in Sochi, «M-Invest» was represented by Mikhail Potepkin. In the official release at the website of the Russian government, he was called the «regional director» of the company.
This man has a rich parapolitical past: in 2007, this former commissar of «Nashi» movement conducted a «march against Ukrainian fascism», and seven years later, he participated in the «International Russian conservative forum», which gathered neo-Nazis from all across Europe.
In 2014, Mikhail Potepkin founded the «IT Debugger» company together with Anna Bogacheva. His business partner is one of the 13 Russians who Special Counsel Robert Mueller declared suspects in manipulating the US presidential election, along with Prigozhin and his holding company — «Concord management and consulting».
In summer 2018, it became known that gold prospecting in Sudan is done by the Meroe Gold company, which is related to «M Invest».
According to the public customs data, Meroe Gold receives goods and equipment from the Russian «Broker Expert» company since October 2017. This company has the same phone number as «Concord management and consulting» and «Lakhta Park Premium», which both belong to Prigozhin’s family.
Documents at CT’s disposal state that in 2017 and 2018, «Broker Expert» has paid for contractual services for the Sudanese company dozens of times. Just for one contract in January 2018, «Broker Expert» paid €8.14 mil for Meroe Gold. «Dossier» center provided two similar documents to CT: two letters to the Federal Service for Military and Technical Co-Operarion with requests to allow the lease of two helicopters to the Sudanese company Meroe Gold. One regarded the helicopter with aircraft number RA-06114 and was written on behalf of «M-Finance» (this helicopter featured in the propaganda film about the convoy). The second letter is from «M Invest», and it’s about the helicopter with flight number RA-25302.
How «M Invest» is connected to Prigozhin’s empire
In 2014, director of «Pishchevik» Yevgeny Ushakov became the co-founder and head of AO «Delta». Since July 2017, «Delta» owns «M Invest».
The director and owner of 0.1% of «M Invest» is one Andrey Mandel. In 2016-2017, he was the director and owner of «Eurogroup». Not much is known about the 28-year-old Andrey Mandel: he graduated from Suvorov Military School in St. Petersburg in 2007. When interviewed by CT, Mandel’s friends and groupmates were surprised to hear that he’s doing business. The person who was introduced to the CT correspondent as Mandel’s closest friend said that he hadn’t contacted Mandel in four years.
In 2016, «Eurogroup» company that belonged to Mandel received five state contracts on a total amount of 757.9 rubles: it conducted repairs of the barracks and quarters of the Western Militsty District of the Ministry of Defense.
One of Mikhail Potepkin’s VK friends is Alexey Petrakov, former director of OOO «Kredo» and graduate of the General of the Army A. V. Khrulev Military Logistics Academy. «Kredo» also belongs to Prigozhin’s family. Petrakov, in terms, is a VK friend of the aforementioned Pavel Arnold, who graduated from the same academy.
In a conversation with CT, Potepkin denied being acquainted with Prigozhin and claimed that he «has no position at the company [“M Invest”]».
«”M Invest” are the people who gave me money to mine gold in Sudan. Sudan gets workplaces and tax money. If you come there, I’ll show you the mine in the desert, — he suggested. — We haven’t mined anything yet, we’re still building the plant». He refused to tell the name of his company and the amount of investments made by «M Invest».
«I am a man who decided to become a businessman in the gold mining sector. Mining gold is my childhood dream. I have received a certain amount of money as investments, but I won’t tell you how much — that’s my own concern», — wrote Potemkin. He also added that he «has nothing to do in Russia» without giving any further explanation.
Mikhail Maglov, Timur Olevskiy, Dmitry Treshchagin